Validating technique in psycohology
of women’s moral inferiority, treated deviations from traditional sex-role behavior as pathological (career ambition = penis envy) and are clearly androcentric (phallocentric). • Most experimental methodologies are based around standardised treatment of participants.
In women, mental illness, especially depression, is much more likely to be explained in terms of neurochemical/hormonal processes, rather than other possible explanations such as social or environmental (e.g. This assumes that men and women respond in the same ways to the experimental situation.
Freud’s ideas are seen as inherently gender biased, but it must be remembered that he was a product of his time.
He saw ‘Biology as destiny’ and women’s roles as prescribed & predetermined.
Judgements about an individual women’s ability are made on the basis of average differences between the sexes or biased sex-role stereotypes, and this also had the effect of lowering women’s self esteem; making them, rather than men, think they have to improve themselves (Tavris, 1993).
Kohlberg based his stages of moral development around male moral reasoning and had an all-male sample.
All his theories are androcentric, most obviously: -‘Penis envy’ – women are defined psychologically by the fact that they aren’t men.
Penis envy becomes a major driving force in the girl’s mental life, and needs to be successfully sublimated into a desire for a husband and children if it is not to become pathological.• Could create artificial differences or mask real ones. • A psychology for women, rather than a psychology of women. Identify aspects of the research that could be considered gender biased 2.Equal opportunity legislation and feminist psychology have performed the valuable functions of reducing institutionalised gender bias and drawing attention to sources of bias and under-researched areas in psychology like childcare, sexual abuse, dual burden working and prostitution. • View of women as normal humans, not deficient men. Identify and explain the type of gender bias that is present 3.So gender differences distorted to maintain the status quo of male power.Feminist argue that although gender differences are minimal or non-existent, they are used against women to maintain male power.