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Music interventions lead to small improvements in physiological responses such as heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate.There is considerable variation between trials with regards to type of music intervention and dosage used and it is therefore not possible to generalise the result. Music therapy is an established healthcare profession that uses music to address physical, emotional, cognitive and social needs 1,2.Some patients presenting with acute leukemia may have a cytogenetic abnormality that is morphologically indistinguishable from the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph1). The Ph1 occurs in only 1% to 2% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but it occurs in about 20% of adults and a small percentage of children with ALL. In the majority of children and in more than one-half of adults with Ph1-positive ALL, the molecular abnormality is different from that in Ph1-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).Many patients who have molecular evidence of the fusion gene because many patients have a different fusion protein from the one found in CML (p190 vs. Using heteroantisera and monoclonal antibodies, ALL cells can be divided into several subtypes (see Table 1).[1,4-6] About 95% of all types of ALL (except Burkitt, which usually has an L3 morphology by the FAB classification) have elevated terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (Td T) expression.Many patients who have molecular evidence of the hybridization (FISH) or reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) because many patients have a different fusion protein from the one found in CML (p190 vs. These tests should be performed, whenever possible, in patients with ALL, especially in those with B-cell lineage disease.L3 ALL is associated with a variety of translocations that involve translocation of the A bone marrow biopsy and aspirate are routinely performed even in T-cell ALL to determine the extent of marrow involvement.CNS prophylaxis is achieved with chemotherapy (intrathecal and/or high-dose systemic therapy) and, in some cases, cranial radiation therapy.
B- and T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia cells express surface antigens that parallel their respective lineage developments.In addition, for B-cell disease, the malignant cells should be analyzed using RT-PCR and FISH for evidence of the fusion gene.This last point is of utmost importance, as timely diagnosis of Ph1 ALL will significantly change the therapeutic approach.Immunophenotypic analysis is essential because leukemias that do not express myeloperoxidase include M0 AML, M7 AML, and ALL.The examination of bone marrow aspirates and/or biopsy specimens should be done by an experienced oncologist, hematologist, hematopathologist, or general pathologist who is capable of interpreting conventional and specially stained specimens.